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 Linux for Beginners
 Distrib. Specific
 Multiple Howtos
Linux for Beginners Howtos-Menu
Finding Community Linux Support  - You've installed Linux, things are looking great, but you've run into a snag and need a little helping hand. You're in good hands. The community is here to help, if you know where to look. Once you do, you'll find that community resources are every bit as good as the commercial counterparts for Linux support.

The Linux Installation HOWTO  - This document describes how to obtain and install Linux software. It is the first document which a new Linux user should read to get started.

The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO  - This document describes the working basics of PC-class computers, Unix-like operating systems, and the Internet in non-technical language.

Learning Linux For Beginners  - Free download of the book Linux For Dummies. The author keeps the amount of technobabble to a minimum and stick with plain English as much as possible. Besides plain talk about Linux installation, boot-up, configuration, and tuning, he includes many examples, plus lots of detailed instructions to help you build and manage your very own Linux machine with a minimum of stress or confusion.

Control-Escape  - a Linux site for TRUE beginners. Here you will find step-by-step articles on how to obtain, install, and use open and alternative software for your PC. Whether you are an absolute beginner or a wanna-be guru, this site can help you learn what you need to know.

JustLinux  - Instead of having to perform heavy research with the difficult to read "man pages" and the voluminous HOWTO files, this site's concept is to take unique, personal, and concise content and serve that to the average Linux user.

Linux Survival - If you would like to learn the basics of Linux quickly, try this entertaining online Linux tutorial.

Linux Headquarters  - The goal of this website is to provide easy to follow, step-by-step guides for Linux users. All guides have been personally performed and tested by us to assure their correctness. They have tried to include as many screenshots as possible. If they have been written as planned, by the time you reach the end of the page of each tutorial you should be able to complete the given tasks. No extensive Linux/Unix knowledge is assumed.  - brings you Linux courses, tutorials, how-to videos and a forum.

From DOS/Windows to Linux HOWTO  - The purpose of this document is to help the reader translate his or her knowledge of DOS and Windows into the Linux environment, as well as providing hints on exchanging files and resources between the two OSes.

Von DOS nach Linux HOWTO  - Ausgehend von Aehnlichkeiten zwischen DOS und UNIX ist es der Zweck dieses Dokumentes, das Wissen des Lesers ueber DOS in die UNIX-Welt hinueberzubringen, damit er so schnell wie moeglich auf dem neuen System produktiv werden kann.

The table of equivalents / replacements / analogs of Windows software in Linux - "This list of equivalents / replacements / analogs of Windows software in Linux is based on our own experience and on the information from the visitors of this page".

Tuxfutter  - dieses Wiki soll fuer Umsteiger von Windows nach Linux dienen und eben diesen Umstieg erleichtern. Es gibt in diesem Wiki dafuer zwei grosse Bereiche, ueber die Sie vergleichbare Software zwischen beiden Welten finden koennen.

Linux + Windows HOWTO - Aimed at assisting those who wish to use the features of both Linux and Windows on the same host.

Linux StepByStep - Information contained on this site is culled from user experiences, published HOWTOs, FAQs, mailing lists, and all their community forums.

Linux/Unix Tutorial Site  - is a practical tutorial designed to get you up to speed as a UNIX/Linux user.  - ist so etwas wie eine online-User-Group. Diese befasst sich mit Themen aus dem weiten Umfeld von Unix, d.h. Linux, BSD und alle anderen unix-aehnlichen Betriebssysteme. Dazu gehoert sowohl die Installation, Administration und Benutzung von derartigen Systemen als auch andere Bereiche der Informationstechnologie wie Programmierung oder Erfahrungsaustausch und Diskussion ueber aktuelle Entwicklungen in der IT-Welt. Der uniXgroup liegen besonders Ein- und Umsteiger am Herzen, aber auch Fortgeschrittene und Profis sind herzlich willkommen.

Linux Newbie Administrator Guide  - is a complete reference for new Linux users who wish to set up and administer their Linux.

Link4Linux  - deutschsprachige Linux Grundlagen.

Pro-Linux Newbie-Workshop  - Allgemeine Einfuehrung, Installation, Partitionen, Benutzerrechte und Dateiattribute unter Linux , Umgang mit Dateisystemen fuer Einsteiger, unter Linux Software installieren und vieles mehr.

Linux Basiswissen  - Eine allgemeine Einfuehrung in Linux (PDF Dateien).

Linux fuer alle  - Linux Grundlagen. Dokumentationen in deutsch.  - ist ein Projekt fuer Leute die zu Linux wechseln wollen. Es bietet Video Tutorials, die Linux Anfaengern die ersten Schritte erleichtern sollen.

/bin/bash  - stellt dem Linuxneuling die Shell, also die Textkonsole mit ihren Vorzuegen vor.

UNIX Zugriffsrechte aus Benutzersicht  - ist ein deutschsprachiges Tutorial.

de.comp.os.unix.linux - FAQ  - beinhaltet Antworten auf die in dcoul* am haeufigsten gestellten Fragen.

Shell Howtos-Menu
UNIX shell differences and how to change your shell.

Unix Shell-Programmierung  - ist eine deutschsprachige Uebersicht/Auflistung.

An Introduction to the Unix Shell  - is an HTMLized version of Steve Bourne's original shell tutorial.

Writing a Simple Bash Script  - a tutorial by Joe 'Zonker' Brockmeier: "The first step is often the hardest, but don't let that stop you. If you've ever wanted to learn how to write a shell script but didn't know where to start, this is your lucky day".

Bourne Shell Programming  - is a Bourne Shell Programming Tutorial for learning about using the unix shell.

Bash Guide for Beginners  - gets you started with Bash scripting and bridges the gap between the Bash HOWTO and the Advanced Bash Scripting Guide. The guide contains lots of examples and exercises.

Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide  - This document is both a tutorial and a reference on shell scripting with Bash. The exercises and heavily-commented examples invite active reader participation.

Bash Reference Manual  - Bash is the shell, or command language interpreter, that will appear in the GNU operating system. The name is an acronym for the "Bourne-Again SHell", a pun on Steve Bourne, the author of the direct ancestor of the current Unix shell /bin/sh, which appeared in the Seventh Edition Bell Labs Research version of Unix.

Bash Prompt HOWTO  - Creating and controlling terminal and xterm prompts is discussed, including incorporating standard escape sequences to give username, current working directory, time, etc. Further suggestions are made on how to modify xterm title bars, use external functions to provide prompt information, and how to use ANSI colours.

BASH Programming - Introduction HOW-TO  - This article intends to help you to start programming basic-intermediate shell scripts. It does not intend to be an advanced document.

Shellprogrammierung  - Dieses Kapitel behandelt den fortgeschrittenen Umgang mit Bourne- Shell kompatiblen Shells, der insbesondere im Erstellen und Pflegen von Shell- Skripten Anwendung findet.

Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide  - is an in-depth exploration of the gentle art of shell scripting.

Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial  - is a "Beginner's Handbook".

Chris F.A. Johnson's Unix Shell page  - Scripts, tutorials and links.  - Learning the shell, writing shell scripts and more.

UNIX Shellprogrammierung  - Eine Einfuehrung in /bin/sh und ihre Programmierung.

Bourne-Shell als Kommando- und Programmiersprache  - auch als Postscript-Version erhaeltlich.

KornShell Documentation  - Howtos, FAQs, Books, Manuals.

TCSH Manual  - TCSH is an enhanced but completely compatible version of the Berkeley UNIX C shell.

zsh-lovers  - s a small project which tries to collect tips, tricks and examples for the Z shell. Authors of the zsh-lovers manual page are Christian 'strcat' Schneider, Matthias Kopfermann and Michael Prokop.

Die Z-Shell  - Howto in deutsch.

Zsh-Liebhaber-Seite  - Tips, Tricks und Beispiele zur Z shell in deutsch.

Introduction to awk  - Awk is a pattern-scanning and text processing utility that captures information from text files creating reports in the process, modify files from one format to another, create databases and perform mathematical operations on data.

Distribution Specific Howtos-Menu
Debian GNU/Linux Documentation  - HOWTOs and FAQs specifically written for Debian.

Debian GNU installation  - for Alpha, ARM, Intel x86, Motorola 680x0, PowerPC, SPARC in many languages.

Securing Debian Manual  - This manual describes the security of the Debian GNU/Linux operating system and within the Debian project. It starts with the process of securing and hardening the default Debian GNU/Linux installation (both manually and automatically), covers some of the common tasks involved in setting up a secure user and network environment, gives information on the security tools available, steps to take before and after a compromise and also describes how security is enforced in Debian by the security team. The document includes a step by step hardening guide and within the appendix there is detailed information on how to setup an intrusion detection system and a bridge firewall with Debian GNU/Linux.

Debian Books  - in english, german, korean, dutch.

Debian GNU/Linux Anwenderhandbuch  - in deutsch.

Debian Maintenance HOWTO  - The aim of this document is to give users a quick introduction into Maintaining a Debian System. - Frequently Asked Questions  - Debian FAQ in deutscher Sprache.

Seite fuer Debian- und Linux-Neulinge  - Das hat sich zum Ziel gesetzt, den Debian- und Linuxanfaenger bei seinen ersten Schritten zu unterstuetzen.

Debian GNU/Linux Howtos  - widmet sich einer Vielzahl von Themen rund um das freie Betriebssystem Debian GNU/Linux. Der interessierte Leser wird hier sowohl Howtos zum Betrieb verschiedener Serverdienste als auch Anleitungen zur Installation und Konfiguration einer Vielzahl von Desktop-Applikationen finden. Zum einen sollen die Schritt-fuer-Schritt Anleitungen ein nachvollziehbares Setup ermoeglichen und zum Ziel fuehren, zum anderen soll gerade bei dem Aufsetzen von Serverdiensten das Hintergrundwissen vermittelt werden.

Using Debian as Desktop System  - This site offers binary and source packages for the stable and testing Debian distribution running as desktop systems.

DebianOn  - is an effort to document how to install, configure and use Debian on some specific hardware. Therefore potential buyers would know if that hardware is supported and owner would know how get the best out of that hardware.

About Debian  - Tutorials on Debian and step-by-step guides on setting up various LAN, Internet, and Gateway Servers.

debianHELP  - wants to provide some in- depth, non- geek explanations about the common problems that people run into.

debian-user-german FAQ  - Haeufig gestellte Fragen (und Antworten) der deutschsprachigen Debian Mailingliste.

Debian "Lenny" Release Information  - To obtain and install Debian GNU/Linux 5.0, see the Debian "Lenny" Installation Information page and the Debian GNU/Linux "Lenny" -- Installation Guide. To upgrade from an older Debian release, see the instructions in the Release Notes.

Debian Wiki: New In Lenny  - about new functions and other interesting things in Debian GNU/Linux 5.0 "Lenny".

Installing Debian  - These are instructions for installing a very clean Debian GNU/Linux system that boots from RAID 1 with a a bootable cd with debootstrap and RAID support.

DebianEeePC  - the goal of this wiki is full support for the Asus Eee PC in Debian.

Ubuntu Documentation  - This site is where you can find the official documentation developed and maintained by the Ubuntu Documentation Project. This page contains documentation for the latest stable version. If you can't find what you are looking for here, try the excellent source of community contributed documentation.

SUSE Support knowledgebase  - in English, Deutsch, Français, Español, Cesky, Magyarul.

openSUSE Hardware  - The following pages are used by the openSUSE community to record the compatibility of various hardware and full systems with SUSE Linux. Please share your experience by adding your hardware, especially if you had some issue that you overcame.

SUSE Documentation  - for Desktop and Server Products.

SUSE Support-Datenbank  - zu speziellen Problemem in deutsch.

Unofficial SUSE FAQ  - This document is compiled from SuSE English Linux Mailinglist and tries to provide answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).

Red Hat Support and Docs  - Quickhelp and Product Resources for older and new Red Hat Versions.

"Pocket" ISP based on Red Hat Linux HOWTO  - This document outlines the setup of a single RedHat box for dialins, virtual web hosting, virtual email, POP3 and ftp servers.

Security Quick-Start HOWTO for Redhat Linux  - is a an overview of the basic steps required to secure a Linux installation from intrusion. It is intended to be an introduction.

Red Hat Linux Support Resources  - Personalized support services and free Support Resources and Documentation.

Fedora Documentation  - This section is dedicated to user documentation for Fedora Core.

Fedora 10 - Security-Enhanced Linux User Guide  - This book is about managing and using Security-Enhanced Linux. Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a Linux feature that provides a variety of security policies, including U.S. Department of Defense style mandatory access controls, through the use of Linux Security Modules (LSM) in the Linux kernel.

Slackware Linux Essentials  - "The Official Guide To Slackware Linux", named "The Book".

Linux Packages  - Slackware Resources: HOWTO's, Help files, FAQ's.

Slackware Linux Installation Help.

Slackware Linux Configuration Help.

Slackware on TU-Vienna  - Slackware- HOWTOs, ISOs and other Slackware resources.

Mandriva Documentation & Manuals  - Whether you're a new or expert Mandriva user, you may sometime look for help. Here is where you can get answers to your questions and find help. You can get access to specific support zone through the menu of this section.

Multiple Howtos Howtos-Menu
Linux Documentation Project  Guides - longer, more in-depth books. HOWTOs - subject-specific help. FAQs - Frequently Asked Questions. man pages - help on individual commands.

Deutsches Linux HOWTO Projekt (DLHP)  - Dieses Projekt hat es sich zum Ziel gesetzt, dem deutschsprachigen Linux Anwender Dokumentation in seiner Muttersprache zur Verfuegung zu stellen.  - has mirrored all of the howtos of the Linux Documentation Project. - HowtoLinux  - includes the Unix and Linux server tips, backup technologies, tutorial videos and scripts. The site is concentrating in Linux/Unix systems, Linux security , TCP/IP, Anti DDoS, Server side optimization, computer clustering, database administration, FreeBSD, Solaris, Researches on open source softwares, webhosting, Datacenter Colocation services, Dedicated Servers.

Link4Linux  - Linksammlung von Dokumentationen und Handbuechern in deutsch.

Focus On Linux  - many HOWTOs.

Linux fuer alle  - deutschsprachige Dokumentationen.  - Dirk Benders Linux Dokumentationen in deutscher Sprache: Linux allgemein, KDE, Netzwerk, Hardware, ISDN.

SelfLinux  - macht es sich zur Aufgabe, ein umfassendes Nachschlagewerk zu GNU/Linux in deutscher Sprache zur Verfuegung zu stellen.  - offers a forum, tutorials, a Hardware Compatibility List, man pages online and more.

LinuxHelp  - HOWTOs-, FAQs-, Guides-, Newbies-, PPP-Help- and a Forums section.  - is a website to where many Linux-related documents were collected, and made available in an organized, easy to browse way.

Linux Knowledge Portal  - Ob Linux- Einsteiger oder Linux- User seit der ersten Stunde - hier koennt ihr euch euer persoenliches Portal zusammenstellen und gezielt euer Linux- Wissen vergroessern.

Manpages Howtos-Menu
Linux man pages  - lets you search the Linux manual pages online, browse Linux man pages by name or see the full list of Linux man pages for a section.

Debian Man Pages  - Man Page Lookup searches for man pages name and section as given in the selection menu and the query dialog. Apropos Keyword Search searches the database for the string given in the query dialog. There are also several hypertext links provided as short-cuts to various queries: Section Indexes is apropos listings of all man pages by section. Explanations of Man Sections contains pointers to the intro pages for various man sections.

Linux Man Pages Online - to search the Linux manual pages via the web.

Projekt: Deutsche Manpages  - Das Projekt Deutsche Manpages hat zum Ziel, deutschsprachige Manpages fuer Linux zu bieten.

Linux Man Pages  -is a searchable HTML version.

Linux man pages - of the "Linux Documentation Project".

Online-Books Howtos-Menu
... in english
The Linux System Administrators' Guide  - an introduction to system administration of a Linux system for novices.

FreeTechBooks  - is a guide to free online computer books, lecture notes, documentations and references.

Linux Network Administrators Guide  - by Olaf Kirch & Terry Dawson. Beginners and experienced users alike should find the information they need to cover nearly all important administration activities required to manage a Linux network configuration.

Maximum RPM  - "Taking the Red Hat Package Manager to the Limit". By Edward C. Bailey. This is a book about the Red Hat Package Manager or, as it is known to it's friends, RPM.

GNU Autoconf, Automake and Libtool  - by Gary V. Vaughan, Ben Elliston, Tom Tromey and Ian Lance Taylor is a tutorial for Autoconf, Automake and Libtool, hereafter referred to as the GNU Autotools.

Open Sources  - "Voices from the Open Source Revolution" To sustain the digital renaissance we need Open Source development. Open Source development drives progress not just in computer science, but in the computer industry as well.

Free as in Freedom  - "Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software" by By Sam Williams. This book is a work of journalism, but it is also a work of technical documentation.

O'Reilly Open Books Project  - English-Language Books, Francais Tribune Libre & Out-of-Print Books.

Samba books  - this is the Samba Team's list of available books. The following lists all the books in chronological order.

Debian Books  - in english, german, korean, dutch.

Learning Debian GNU/Linux  - by Bill McCarty.

Linux From Scratch (LFS)  - is a project that provides you with the steps necessary to build your own custom Linux system. Building an LFS system teaches you about all that makes Linux tick, how things work together, and depend on each other.

... in deutsch
Debian GNU/Linux Anwenderhandbuch  - von Frank Ronneburg. Das Buch beschreibt die Installation von Debian und fuehrt dann ueber die Installation von weiteren Paketen und deren Konfiguration zu einem kompletten, sinnvoll konfigurierten System. Hierbei wird besonders Wert darauf gelegt, dass ein hoher Bezug zur Praxis gewahrt bleibt.

Linux - Wegweiser fuer Netzwerker  - ist eine von Terry Dawson revidierte Auflage, herausgegeben von O'Reilly & Associates. Dieses Buch ist im grossen und ganzen so organisiert, dass die von Ihnen durchzufuehrenden Schritte in der Netzwerk- Konfiguration Ihres Systems nacheinander durchlaufen werden.

Die Linuxfibel (deutsch)  - von Thomas Ermer, Michael Meyer ist ein Buch, welches dem Anfaenger als auch dem Profi gleichermassen gerecht wird. Alles wird praxisbezogen und distributionsunabhaengig dargestellt. Nachdem die Portierung der Linuxfibel durch das LinWiki Team abgeschlossen wurde, erfolgt die Weiterentwicklung der Linuxfibel nun als Wikiprojekt. Jeder Leser ist eingeladen, gemaess seinen Faehigkeiten zum Fortschreiten des Projekts beizutragen; sei es durch Rechtschreibkorrekturen, durch Fuellen der noch reichlich vorhandenen Luecken oder gar durch Integration neuer Themen.

Das Linuxbuch  - Der Vorgaenger der Linuxfibel. Einige Themen des alten Buches finden in der neuen Version noch keine Entsprechung, weshalb die alte Buchversion auch weiterhin bestehen bleiben wird.

Linux - Wegweiser zur Installation & Konfiguration  - von Matt Welsh, Matthias Kalle Dalheimer und Lar Kaufmann. Dieses Buch bietet Ihnen einen Ueberblick und eine grundlegende Einfuehrung in das Linux-System.

Deutsche Uebersetzung von Linux From Scratch (LFS)  - dies ist die deutsche Uebersetzung des Buches "Linux From Scratch" (kurz: LFS). Das Buch steht in verschiedenen Ausgabeformaten zur Verfuegung (HTML, PDF, Text, ...).

Open Source - kurz & gut  - Ziel dieses Buches ist es, Interessierten und Sympathisanten der Open Source- Initiative einen Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Diskussion zu geben und dabei wichtige Aspekte und die durchaus kontroversen Positionen innerhalb dieser Bewegung zusammenzufassen.

Wie werde ich UNIX-Guru  - von Arnold Willemer -- Einfuehrung in UNIX, Linux und Co. Erhaeltlich als HTML- Version zum online Lesen und zum Downloaden.

O'Reilly Open Books Project  - Deutschsprachige Online-Buecher, English-Language Books, Out-of-Print Books, Francais Tribune Libre.

Samba, 2. Auflage (in deutsch)  - Von Jay Ts, Robert Eckstein und David Collier-Brown. O'Reilly Verlag. Dieses Buch ist unter der GNU Free Documentation License (FDL) erschienen. Bitte beachten Sie den Text der GNU FDL.

Internet Howtos-Menu
DSL HOWTO for Linux  - technology behind DSL as well as subscribing, installing, configuring, and troubleshooting, with an emphasis on how this impacts Linux users.

Linux und T-DSL Howto  - ist eine Kurzanleitung zur Installation eines T-DSL Zugangs der Deutschen Telekom unter Linux.

T-DSL via Satellit  - ist eine deutschsprachige Anleitung fuer Linux.

Austrian Highspeed Internetconnection & Linux HOWTO  - Zugeschnitten fuer oesterreichische Providerverhaeltnisse. Dieses HOWTO unterstuetzt zur Zeit ADSL-, ISDN- und Kabel (Chello/Telekabel, Kabelsignal, ...) Zugaenge.

ADSL mit PPTP  - dieses Howto ist fuer Oesterreich bestimmt, es wird mit grosser Wahrscheinlichkeit aber auch in anderen Laendern funktionieren wo das PPTP Protokoll verwendet wird.

ISDN4Linux FAQ  - online & download version.

Linux ISDN HOWTO  - Einrichtung eines Internet- Zugang- Rechners mit ISDN4Linux - Eine praxisorientierte Beschreibung mit Uebungen.

Cable Modem Providers HOWTO  - This document attempts to answer basic questions on how to connect your Linux box to cable modem or cable Internet provider.

Modem-HOWTO  - Help with selecting, connecting, configuring, trouble-shooting, and understanding modems for a PC. See Serial HOWTO for multiport serial boards.

Linux Winmodem Support  - "The FIRST step towards finding a Linux driver is identifying the modem's CHIPSET.... For PCI card modems, a database can be searched".

The Winmodems-and-Linux HOWTO  - This document helps users who have a Winmodem for getting it working under Linux.

Linux ISP-Verbindung HOWTO  - Dieses Dokument beschreibt, wie man unter Linux ueber ein Modem Verbindung mit einem Internet Service Provider aufnimmt. Ausser den Grundlagen des Einwahlverfahrens werden auch die Themen EMail und News behandelt.

Linux PPP HOWTO  - How to connect your Linux PC to a PPP server, how to use PPP to link two LANs together; provides one method of setting up your Linux computer as a PPP server. The document also provides help in debugging non-functional PPP connections.

Using PPP - Dialing the ISP  - This YoLinux Tutorial describes four methods to connect your Linux PC to your Internet Service Provider.

AOL and Linux  - This tutorial covers the PengAOL software installation and configuration necessary for one to connect to AOL using Linux.

Networking Howtos-Menu
Linux Ethernet-Howto  - is a compilation of information about which ethernet devices can be used for Linux, and how to set them up. Note that this Howto is focused on the hardware and low level driver aspect of the ethernet cards, and does not cover the software end of things like ifconfig and route. See the Network Howto for that stuff.

Linux Netzwerk HOWTO  - in deutsch. Das Betriebssystem Linux bietet Unterstuetzung fuer fast jedes Netzwerkprotokoll. Ziel dieses Textes ist es, die Installation und Konfiguration der Netzwerkfunktionalitaet von Linux und die zugehoerigen Hilfsprogramme zu beschreiben..

The Linux Networking Overview HOWTO  - is an overview of the networking capabilities of the Linux Operating System and to provides pointers for further information and implementation details.

Network Security  - Firewalls, Security / Hacking tools, PGP, SSH, & much more.

How to Configure Wireless on Any Linux Desktop  - If you are a mobile Linux user one of the first things you need to do is to connect that mobile device to a wireless access point. By default, the standard Wi-Fi tools for the Linux desktops are straight-forward and reliable. That of course presumes you are using the standard desktops (GNOME or KDE). But what happens when you opt for a different desktop such as E17 or Fluxbox? Or what if the "default" standards aren't flexible enough or feature-rich enough for your needs. In those instances you need to take a look at a different toolset for connecting you to a wireless access point.

Wireless LAN resources for Linux  - available in PostScript, PDF and HTML.

Modem-Dialup-NT HOW-TO  - This document will help you to setup the Modem to do Dial-up Networking with remote server like Windows NT RAS or Linux RAS (Remote Access Server). You can use the Modem to do Dial-Up Networking on Linux very similar to that of MS Windows dialup networking.

Linux Infrared HOWTO  - provides an introduction to Linux and infrared devices and how to use the software provided by the Linux/IrDA project. This package uses IrDA(TM) compliant standards. Infrared ports let you communicate with printers, modems, fax machines, LANs, and other laptops.

TCP/IP Tutorial  - is a tutorial on the TCP/IP protocol suite, focusing particularly on the steps in forwarding an IP datagram from source host to destination host through a router.

TCP/IP Technik  - Kristian Koehntopps Artikel ueber TCP/IP Technik aus "c't - Magazin fuer Computertechnik", Ausgabe 4/93.

Howto install OpenVPN Server and Client  - This Howto is focused on using OpenVPN as a Windows 2k/XP Client to Server VPN connection. The installation consists of two steps, first the the portion which resides on the server and then the Client.

OpenVPN HOWTO  - This document describes setting up OpenVPN in a typical Home to Office telecommuting configuration. While this HOWTO presents in-depth configuration examples, simpler examples are shown in the examples section of the man page.

IPsec Howto  - This is the official IPsec Howto for Linux.

DNS Lookup Command  - Explains how to use host or dig command to query DNS name servers, dns lookup under UNIX or Linux for troubleshooting purpose without using 3rd party websites or apps.

Server Howtos-Menu
The Linux Intranet Server HOWTO  - describes how to setup an Intranet using Linux as the server which binds Unix, Netware, NT and Windows together. Hence by just establishing the connection to the Linux box you are provided transparent access to all the various platforms.

The Linux NIS(YP)/NYS/NIS+ HOWTO  - This document describes how to configure Linux as NIS(YP) or NIS+ client and how to install as NIS server.

Zentrale Homeverzeichnisse mit NIS  - Der Sinn dieses Vorhabens ist, alle Logins und Homes auf einem zentralem Server zu halten.

Linux NFS Overview, FAQ and HOWTO Documents  - The Network File System (NFS) was developed to allow machines to mount a disk partition on a remote machine as if it were on a local hard drive.

NFS und NIS - Server / Client  - Wie man einen NFS und NIS - Server (incl. Clients) einrichtet in deutscher Sprache.

Samba Man Pages and Documentations  - The documentation (and in particular the man pages) given on this web page are taken from the latest development version of Samba.

Dokumentation zu Samba 3 in deutsch  - Dieses Projekt hat zum Ziel, die vorliegende Dokumentation zur Software-Suite Samba in der Release 3 ins Deutsche zu uebersetzen. Dadurch soll Samba einer groesseren Anzahl von Benutzern zugaenglich gemacht werden.

SMB HOWTO (Part of The Linux Documentation Project)  - This document describes how to use the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, also called the Session Message Block, NetBIOS or LanManager protocol, with Linux using Samba.

Linux Samba HOWTO  - deutsche Uebersetzung des Samba HOWTOs des Linux Documentation Projects (TLDP).

Samba 3.x als Domaenen-Mitglied  - ist eine Anleitung zur Integration von Linux bzw. Samba an einer Windows 2003- Domaene.

FTP mini-HOWTO  - This document was written by Matthew Borowski for the Linux Documentation Project.

Linux FTP Server Setup  - how to convert your Linux box into an FTP server using the VSFTP package.

pure-ftp  - beschreibt die Installation und Konfiguration des pure-ftpd in deutsch.

Linux Advanced Routing & Traffic Control HOWTO  - A very hands-on approach to iproute2, traffic shaping and a bit of netfilter.

PortSlave How-To using the Linux Router  - "I wrote this as a beginning for using Portslave with the Linux router project. It seems that Portslave is a widely used program with no documentation. Since I just dove into using Portslave I am sure this document can be improved by others over time. After several days of fighting Portslave, I figured out how incredibly easy to use it really is".

Routing Mini-Handbuch  - beschreibt das Routing in kleinen IPV4-Netzen in seiner einfachen Anwendung.

Linux IP Masquerade HOWTO  - This document describes how to enable the Linux IP Masquerade feature on a given Linux host.

Linux IP Masquerade Resource  - About Linux IP Masquerade, IP Masquerade HOWTOs in many languages.

Masquerading Made Simple HOWTO  - IP Masquerade is a form of Network Address Translation (NAT) which allows internally connected computers to communicate to the Internet via the Linux server's Internet IP address.

Private Server HOWTO  - beschreibt wie man z.B. fuer WG's ein kleines Netzwerk aufbaut mittels dem man die Internet-Verbindung teilen kann.

The Squid Guide  - this is the new Squid User's guide site. The site has been transformed to a wiki - feel free to improve the contents of the site.

SQUID Frequently Asked Questions.

Squid Handbuch  - in deutsch.

SquidGuard  - Installing and configuring the squidGuard web filter.

DNS HOWTO  - how to become a totally small time DNS admin.

DNS HOWTO in deutsch  - dieses Dokument beschreibt, wie man mit wenig Aufwand ein DNS-Administrator wird.

djbdns Howtos  - This is Daniel J. Bernstein's (he's the author of "djbdns") Documentation about the secure, reliable, small, and fast DNS package.

djbdns FAQ  - This FAQ is unofficial and is meant to contain other, more exotic questions, too, like questions about IPv6 and how to have a dnscache and a tinydns on the same IP.

Chroot-BIND9 HOWTO  - describes installing the BIND 9 nameserver to run in a chroot jail and as a non-root user, to provide added security and minimise the potential effects of a security compromise.

Chroot-BIND8 HOWTO  - describes installing the BIND 8 nameserver to run in a chroot jail and as a non-root user, to provide added security and minimise the potential effects of a security compromise.

Unbound Documentation  - Tutorials, Manual Pages and more about Unbound, the validating, recursive, and caching DNS resolver.

Apache HTTP Server Version 1.3  - "Using the Apache HTTP Server", Tutorials, Reference Manual & more.

Apache HTTP Server Version 2.0  - Documentation (Available Languages: de, en, fr, ja, ko).

Apache Server FAQ  - this is the FAQ about the Apache HTTP Server Version 1.3 web server.

Zope Documentation  - How-To's, books, tips, tricks and techniques ... for new users, developers and administrators.

Mgetty+Sendfax Archive/Documentation Centre.

Fetchmail  - Manual Reference Page.

Fetchmail  - Frequently Asked Questions.

Fetchmail  - HOWTO in deutsch.

Getmail Documentation.

Sendmail + UUCP HOWTO  - How to setup a single machine, reffered to as in the example, with no direct access to the internet to route mail for you via sendmail and UUCP to a "smarter host" eg your ISP.

Linux UUCP HOWTO in deutsch  - dieser Text erklaert die Funktionsweise und Konfiguration von Taylor-UUCP. Er soll die Installation eines UUCP-Feeds fuer News und Mail erleichtern.

Sendmail-IGA  - ist eine "Idiotensichere Gebrauchsanleitung zu Sendmail" in deutsch.

QMAIL FAQ  - "qmail's modular, lightweight design and sensible queue management make it the fastest available message transfer agent".

QMAIL Book  - PDF Dateien in deutsch. QMAIL ist ein UNIX-basierter, schneller und sicherer SMTP MTA.

Documentation for exim  - Documentations, Howtos and FAQs about Exim.

Getting Exim Up and Running  - This chapter of the online book "Linux Network Administrator's Guide " gives you a quick introduction to setting up Exim and an overview of its functionality.

Inbetriebnahme von Exim  - ist ein Kapitel des Online Buches "Linux - Wegweiser fuer Netzwerker" und gibt Ihnen eine kurze Einfuehrung in die Einrichtung von Exim und eine Uebersicht über seine Funktionalitaet.  - Jason Meers' documentations about exim.

Exim Wiki  - This wiki covers extra information not in the official documentation. It allows users of Exim to supplement the documentation by adding examples and interfaces to other software and other how to information.

Exim 4 / Courier IMAP  - this Howto is about configuring Exim 4 and Courier IMAP under Debian GNU/Linux.

exim4 with ssmtp on Debian  - Sending secure mail seems to have two possible implementations; firstly you can connect over an insecure channel and issue a command (STARTTLS) which tells the SMTP server to start a secure channel. The other option is where you use a secure channel to start with. Usually this happens with an SSL (TLS) connection on port 465 which you then probably have to authenticate over. Exim doesn't support this second model, seemingly by design. Which is a little annoying if that's all your ISP offers! You may like this on your laptop, since by authenticating you should be able to send email from anywhere through the ISP mail server. What you need is a wrapper that provides the SSL connection between your computer and the ISP. Then you have to fool exim into using it, and direct it to send passwords unencrypted (though the underlying channel is safely encrypted).

MailScanner Installation Guide - Exim.

IMAP E-Mail-Server  - beschreibt die Einrichtung eines IMAP Servers fuer ein kleines Netzwerk unter Debian Woody.

IMAP-Server Dovecot  - beschreibt Installation und Einrichtung des IMAP-Server Dovecot.

Postfix  - Documentations, Howtos and FAQs, Howtos about General Email/System Administration.

Ralf Hildebrandt's "Postfix Shrine"  - Postfix Howtos, Documentations and Configurations in enlish & german .

The Perfect Server - Debian Squeeze (Debian 6.0)  - This tutorial shows how to set up a Debian Squeeze (Debian 6.0) server that offers all services needed by ISPs and hosters: Apache web server (SSL-capable), Postfix mail server with SMTP-AUTH and TLS, BIND DNS server, Proftpd FTP server, MySQL server, Courier POP3/IMAP, Quota, Firewall, etc. In the end you should have a system that works reliably, and if you like you can install the free webhosting control panel ISPConfig 2 (i.e., ISPConfig runs on it out of the box).

ISP-style Email Service  - This tutorial is meant to help system administrators who want to receive email for multiple domains. In Postfix slang these are called postfix virtual domains.

Blocking SPAM (UCE) using Postfix  - This article describes several methods that postfix provides for the e-mail administrator to filter known UCE sites and messages.

Postfix UCE HOWTO  - Dieses HOWTO befasst sich mir der Konfiguration von anti-Spam (UCE) Beschraenkungen ("restrictions") in Postfix.

SpamAssassin Documentation  - offers the READMEs, the POD documentation, Howtos and a configuration tool (just fill out a few simple questions).

SpamAssassin Wiki, including FAQ.  - This site is intended to provide a place for collaborative documentation of SpamAssassin.

Writing and Testing New Spamassassin Rules  - How to modify existing rules or their scores, or even write your own.

SpamAssassin Rules Emporium (SARE)  - The main goal here is to simply have a TON of custom rules written by people for SpamAssassin (SA), and to help others learn how to write their own rules. A typical spam may score 3.0 points, but with a few SARE rulesets it will jump to 35.0.

SpamCopURI  - is a plugin to Mail::SpamAssassin. It consults the list of spamvertised sites on and provides rules to allow scoring of blacklisted urls. See for more information about the source data.

FairlySecureAntiSpamWiki  - Fairly-Secure Anti-SPAM Gateway Using OpenBSD, Postfix, Amavisd-new, SpamAssassin, Razor and DCC.

Filtering Mail FAQ  - offers general filtering strategies and instructions for using procmail, mailagent, and the Elm filter program to filter mailing list messages into separate folders.

INN  - The InterNetNews package (INN) is a complete Usenet system. It includes innd, an NNTP server, and nnrpd, a newsreading server. INN separates hosts that feed you news from those that have users reading news. ISC's (who took over development of INN in 1996) site includeslinks to documentations like INN FAQ, Howtos, mailing lists.

INN einrichten  - "Der eigene Newsserver -- INN installieren und konfigurieren". Dieser Text von Kristian Koehntopp soll dabei helfen, einen eigenen INN als News- Server aufzusetzen und so zu konfigurieren, dass er ein nuetzlicher Teil der USENET- Infrastruktur in Deutschland ist und dass einige Benutzer dort News lesen koennen.

INN for the Impatient  - This article is only meant to give you a quick view of how INN works, and how to set it up on your network.

Installing and Maintaining an INN News Server.

Database Howtos-Menu
MySQL Documentation  - "The MySQL manual covers most of the areas of MySQL use. If you cannot find the answer(s) from the manual, you can get support by purchasing MySQL support or browsing our mailing list archives".

phpMyAdmin Documentation  - phpMyAdmin can administer a whole MySQL-server (needs a super-user) but also a single database (includes: Requirements - Introduction - Installation - Configuration - FAQ...).

phpMyAdmin FAQ  - in deutsch.

A mSQL and perl Web Server Mini HOWTO  - describes how to build a SQL client/server database using WWW and HTML for the user interface.

Online Qddb Documentation  - includes: Qddb User's Guide, QddbScript in a Nutshell, A Guide to Qddb, FAQ, Qddb Manual Pages, Online Technical Papers. Also Postscript versions are available (via FTP).

Programming Howtos-Menu
Programming  - Topics covered in this section include: General, Compilers, Languages, Libraries, Interfaces / API / Protocols, Security, Tools, Version Control, DBMS / Databases, Miscellaneous.

BASH Programming - Introduction HOW-TO  - This article intends to help you to start programming basic-intermediate shell scripts. It does not intend to be an advanced document.

Kernel Hacking  - An Introduction to Linux Kernel Programming.  - is an IRC network dedicated to the "newbie" kernel hacker.

Linux Kernel Module Programming Guide.

Programming Guide for Linux USB Device Drivers.

Linux SCSI Programmier HOWTO  - (in deutsch) Dieses Dokument behandelt die Installation und Programmierung von Linux generischem SCSI Interface.

Linux-PAM  - This is the primary distribution site for the Linux-PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux) project. Things to be found here are documentation and source code for Linux-PAM.

Configuration and Tuning Howtos-Menu
The Linux Kernel HOWTO  - This is a detailed guide to kernel configuration, compilation, upgrades, and troubleshooting for ix86-based systems.

Linux Kernel HOWTO (deutsch)  - Dieser Text gibt eine detaillierte Anleitung zu Konfiguration, Kompilation und Upgrades des Linux-Kernels für ix86-basierte Systeme.

Linux From Scratch (LFS)  - is a project that provides you with the steps necessary to build your own custom Linux system. Building an LFS system teaches you about all that makes Linux tick, how things work together, and depend on each other.

Deutsche Uebersetzung von Linux From Scratch (LFS)  - dies ist die deutsche Uebersetzung des Buches "Linux From Scratch" (kurz: LFS). Das Buch steht in verschiedenen Ausgabeformaten zur Verfuegung (HTML, PDF, Text, ...).

Building a Minimal Linux System from Source Code  - is used to be part of From PowerUp to Bash Prompt. The Howto is available as html for viewing online, html tarball for download and local viewing, gzipped postscript for a nicely printed copy, Rich Text Format, ascii text and Linux-doc sgml.

Configuration HOWTO  - This HOWTO would be the main doc from which every others can refer to configure most common hardware and services.

The Linux Cookbook  - Tips and Techniques for Everyday Use.

The Linux Tips HOWTO  - contains those hard to find hints and tweekings that make Linux a bit nicer.

Bad block HOWTO for smartmontools  - This article describes what actions might be taken when smartmontools detects a bad block on a disk. It demonstrates how to identify the file associated with an unreadable disk sector, and how to force that sector to reallocate.

BIOS Flashing with a Bootable CD-ROM  - Most BIOS flashing programs require either a floppy or DOS/Windows or both because the flashing programs run from DOS (Uniflash is a notable exception). Here are the steps, which presume you have boot-capable CD-ROM.

Install Howtos-Menu
RPM HOWTO  - in english. RPM is the RPM Package Manager. It is an open packaging system available for anyone to use.

RPM HOWTO in deutsch  - in diesem HOWTO wird beschrieben, wie man den Red Hat Packagemanager rpm anwendet und eigene Pakete erstellt.

APT HOWTO  - This document intends to provide the user with a good understanding of the workings of the Debian package management utility, APT.

APT for rpm based distributions  - At these pages an attempt is made to introduce the Advanced Package Tool (APT), originally developed for the Debian Linux distribution, to users of rpm based Linux systems.

APT for SuSE Howto  - The information on this page is mostly valid for SuSE Linux.

Using apt for rpm  - with Red Hat Linux releases.

DVD, CD Writing Howtos-Menu
CD-Writing HOWTO  - This document deals with the process of writing CDs under Linux.

DE-CD-Writing HOWTO  - Dieses Dokument erklaert auf deutsch, wie man unter Linux CD-Rs und CD-RWs brennt.

Linux DVD HOWTO  - A (hopefully) easy to follow explanation on how to get DVD movie playback in Linux.

DVD+RW/+R/-RW for Linux  - is a tutorial about the dvd+rw-tools.

CD-Recordable FAQ  - attempts to answer Frequently Asked Questions about Compact Disc Recordable technology and related fields.

Printing Howtos-Menu
The Linux Printing HOWTO  - a collection of information on how to generate, preview, print and fax anything under GNU/Linux. Almost everything applies equally well to free software users using other Unixlike operating systems.

Linux Drucker HOWTO in deutsch  - Dieser Text ist eine Zusammenfassung von Informationen, wie man unter Linux (und anderen UNIX-Derivaten) Dokumente generiert, ansieht, druckt oder faxt.

The Linux Printing Usage HOWTO. Documentation Index.

Video and Audio Howtos-Menu
The Linux XFree86 HOWTO  - This document describes how to obtain, install, and configure version 4.1.0 of the XFree86 version of the X Window System (X11R6) for Linux systems. It is a step-by-step guide to configuring XFree86 on your system.

Linux XFree86 HOWTO in deutsch  - Dieses Dokument beschreibt den Bezug, die Installation und die Konfiguration von XFree86, ein X-Window-System fuer Linux-Rechner. Es stellt eine schrittweise Einfuehrung in die Konfiguration von XFree86 dar.

i810 with XFree86 4.x HOWTO  - describes getting XFree86 4.x running on Intel's i810 graphics chipset by using special features of the 2.2.18 and 2.4.x kernels.

The Linux 3Dfx HOWTO  - describes 3Dfx graphics accelerator chip support for Linux. It lists some supported hardware, describes how to configure the drivers, and answers frequently asked questions.

Nvidia OpenGL Configuration mini-HOWTO  - is about how to install the OpenGL drivers for Nvidia graphics cards on Linux. In addition to just installing the Nvidia drivers, this mini-HOWTO also explains how to install XFree86, the OpenGL Utility library (part of Mesa), the OpenGL Utility Toolkit (glut), the full set of OpenGL manpages, Qt and its OpenGL extension, and Java and its Java 3D extension so that a user can have a complete runtime and development environment for OpenGL applications on Linux.

Framebuffer HOWTO  - describes how to use the framebuffer devices in Linux with a variety of platforms. This also includes how to set up multi-headed displays.

The Linux Sound HOWTO  - describes sound support for Linux. It lists the supported sound hardware, describes how to configure the kernel drivers, and answers frequently asked questions.

Sound Blaster AWE 32/64 HOWTO  - This document describes how to install and configure a Sound Blaster 32 (SB AWE 32, SB AWE 64) card from Creative Labs in a Linux System using the AWE Sound Driver Extension written by Takashi Iwai. It also covers some special tools and players for the SB AWE series. Reference system is a Debian GNU/Linux System, but every other Linux Distribution should also work.

The Linux Sound Playing HOWTO  - lists applications for Linux that play various sound formats.

Laptops - Notebooks Howtos-Menu
Linux Laptop-HOWTO  - This HOWTO contains a concise survey of laptop related documents. Also, laptop related Linux features, such as installation methods for laptops (via PCMCIA, without CD drive, etc.), laptop hardware features and configurations for different (network) environments are described.  - This is an index of information and documentation of interest to those who now use or are considering using the Linux operating system on a notebook or laptop computer.  - is an index of information and documentation of interest to those who now use or are considering using the Linux operating system on a notebook or laptop computer.

Linux-InfraRed-HOWTO  - deals with Linux and infrared devices. This are usually IrDA(TM) capable devices, but also LIRC (Linux Infrared Remote Control) is covered.

Linux-Mobile-Guide  - is a Guide for Laptops and Mobile Devices, former known as Linux-Laptop-HOWTO).

Linux Hotplugging  - Hotplug lets you plug in new devices and use them immediately.

Linux PCMCIA HOWTO  - This document describes how to install and use PCMCIA Card Services for Linux, and answers some frequently asked questions.

Deutsche Linux PCMCIA HOWTO  - Dieses Dokument beschreibt die Installation und den Gebrauch des PCMCIA Card Service Pakets fuer Linux.

SCSI Howtos-Menu
The Linux SCSI Generic (sg) HOWTO  - This HOWTO describes the SCSI Generic driver (sg) found in the Linux 2.4 production series of kernels. It focuses on the the interface and characteristics of the driver that application writers may need to know. The driver's theory of operations is covered and some brief examples are included.

The Linux 2.4 SCSI subsystem HOWTO  - This document describes the SCSI subsystem as the Linux kernel enters the 2.4 production series. An external view of the SCSI subsystem is the main theme. Material is included to help the system administration of the Linux SCSI subsystem. There are also brief descriptions of ioctl()s and interfaces that may be relevant to those writing applications that use this subsystem.

Linux SCSI Programmier HOWTO  - (in deutsch) Dieses Dokument behandelt die Installation und Programmierung von Linux generischem SCSI Interface.

The Linux 2.4 SCSI subsystem HOWTO  - describes the SCSI subsystem as the Linux kernel enters the 2.4 production series.

USB Howtos-Menu
Linux USB  - This web site was created to serve as a central point of information for USB support under Linux.

Programming Guide for Linux USB Device Drivers.

Linux Hotplugging  - Hotplug lets you plug in new devices and use them immediately.

Emulation Howtos-Menu
Wine Documentation  - User Guide, Developer Guide, HOWTOs, FAQs, Forums, etc.  - deutsche Homepage ueber den Emulator Wine inclusive deutschem Howto.

Frank's Corner  - is about running Windows applications & games on Linux using Wine.

Dosemu HOWTO  - This is the FAQ / HOWTO document for dosemu.

VMare Documentations.

VMware Server FAQs.

Vi/Vim Howtos-Menu
Vi manuals/tutorials  - many howtos and FAQs from the "Vi Lovers Home Page".

vi reference  - is an overview of the vi commands (also including some "esoteric features").

Vim Color Editor HOW-TO  - (Vi Improved with syntax color highlighting) is a guide to quickly setting up the Vim color editor on Linux or Unix systems. The information here will improve the productivity of programmers because the Vim editor supports syntax color highlighting and bold fonts, improving the "readability" of program code.

Praxisorientiertes VI-Tutorial  - Es gibt viele VI-Varianten. Die zweifellos beliebteste ist der Vi IMproved (vim), daher bezieht sich dieser Artikel zum Teil speziell auf diesen.

Kurzeinfuehrung VIM  - ist eine deutschsprachige Einfuehrung zum Editor VIM (Vi IMproved).

vi FAQ  - Das FAQ zum UNIX-Editor in deutsch.

Short VI-FAQ  - ist eine Uebersicht der vi commands.

Mastering the VI editor  - This tutorial is written to help beginning users get accustomed to using the VI editor, but also contains sections relevant to regular users of VI as well (HTML- & PDF- format).

Vim 101: A Beginner's Guide to Vim  - move around in Vim.

Vim 201: An Intermediate Guide to Vim  - setting up mappings and abbreviations.

Vim 301: Getting Adept at Vim  - configuring Vim and calling external commands.

Vim 401: Extending Vim and More  - scripts, plugins, and the Vim GUI.

The Vi/Ex Editor  - is a Tuorial for editor users who have some fluency in Vi/Ex at the surface level. It includes quite a few tricks that may be built on editor functions we all use every day, but which nonetheless are not obvious.

Introduction to the vi Editor  - covers basic usage of the vi editor (pdf-file).

First Steps: vi.

Misc Howtos-Menu
BIOS Flashing with a Bootable CD-ROM  - Most BIOS flashing programs require either a floppy or DOS/Windows or both because the flashing programs run from DOS (Uniflash is a notable exception). Here are the steps, which presume you have boot-capable CD-ROM.

Linux Hardware Compatibility HOWTO  - This document attempts to list most of the hardware known to be either supported or unsupported under Linux.

Linux PCI-HOWTO  - Information on what works with Linux and PCI-boards and what does not.

The UPS Howto  - This document will help you connect an uninterruptable power supply to a Linux box.

Lynx help files  - The main help page is online, as well as the User Guide.

Serial HOWTO  - This document describes serial port features other than those which should be covered by Modem-HOWTO, PPP-HOWTO, Serial-Programming-HOWTO, or Text-Terminal-HOWTO. It contains technical info about the serial port itself in more detail than found in the above HOWTOs and should be best for troubleshooting when the problem is the serial port itself.

RAID Solutions for Linux  - RAID, short for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, is a method whereby information is spread across several disks, using techniques such as disk striping (RAID Level 0) and disk mirroring (RAID level 1) to achieve redundancy, lower latency and/or higher bandwidth for reading and/or writing, and recoverability from hard-disk crashes. Over six different types of RAID configurations have been defined.

Linux Hotplugging  - Hotplug lets you plug in new devices and use them immediately.

Window Maker Guided tour  - in english, spanish, french and german.


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